A primer on V2X technology for digital infrastructure providers, Part 2

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In Part 1 of this blog series, we discussed the benefits of Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) technology implementation, its challenges and market trends. In Part 2, we will delve deeper into the roll-out plan for V2X technology, different types of vehicle embedded connectivity technologies, and learn more about the multi-access edge compute (MEC) ecosystem.

V2X technology roll-out

V2X technology applications will roll out progressively in three stages: Day 1, Day 2 and Day 3. Each stage builds on the previous one, introducing more advanced features and capabilities.

Day 1 – V2X technology focuses on critical situational awareness and safety. These applications are designed to provide immediate benefits and address common road safety challenges. Examples of Day 1 applications include forward collision warning, emergency vehicle approaching notification and vulnerable road user alerts. Day 1 applications lay the groundwork for V2X technology by demonstrating its potential to enhance road safety and improve traffic flow.

Day 2 – V2X technology builds on the Day 1 foundation, focuses on advanced safety applications using sensor data shared by other vehicles and other nearby objects detected using sensors, and triggers safety-critical actions like automated braking, steering or maneuvering. The first cars equipped with Day 2 V2X technology chipsets are expected in 2026.

Day 3 – V2X technology represents the future of connected and autonomous driving to achieve cooperative intelligent transportation systems. Day 3 applications include platooning, autonomous intersection management and mobility as a service. The first cars equipped with Day 3 chipsets are expected to be available in 2030.

Vehicle embedded connectivity technologies

V2X technology communication protocols are established by standardization bodies such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). These protocols ensure interoperability, scalability, and compliance with regulatory requirements, laying the groundwork for the widespread adoption of V2X technology. The following standards contribute to achieving this goal:

Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC): DSRC operates on a dedicated spectrum in the 5.9-GHz band and utilizes Wi-Fi-like technology. It enables low-latency and high-reliability communication over short distances, making it suitable for localized areas. However, its adoption and interoperability vary across regions. Currently, Europe remains open to DSRC, while China and the US favor Cellular V2X (C-V2X).

Cellular V2X technology (C-V2X): C-V2X utilizes a dedicated communication spectrum between vehicles and other entities. It operates in the 5.9-GHz band, which is reserved for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). C-V2X technology includes Cellular Link (Uu) and Direct Link (PC5) interfaces. Compared to V2X technology, C-V2X technology offers lower latency, improved reliability, and greater range. It requires an embedded V2X technology module, typically integrated into the telematics control unit.


IoT Connectivity Challenges and Security Shortfalls

The MEC ecosystem and V2X technology opportunity

MEC for automotive brings edge computing infrastructure closer to vehicles, enabling faster data processing and application execution for real-time V2X technology communications. To access the MEC infrastructure, vehicles need to be connected to reliable networks such as 4G/5G. Mobile network operators (MNOs) are deploying in-network MEC infrastructure alongside 5G towers and radio access networks. Multi-tenant datacenter (MTDC) providers also play a role in the MEC ecosystem by offering edge capacity and service orchestration, facilitating the movement of data and services between the end user and the cloud.

MEC infrastructure providers, including MNOs and MTDCs, help address data collection, management, and processing challenges in the automotive sector by offering nearby infrastructure, secure data storage, and on-demand services. They contribute to the optimization of connected devices and the advancement of mobility applications.


In the rapidly evolving landscape of self-driving vehicles (SDVs), auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) face the critical task of integrating V2X technology capabilities. Their goal is to seamlessly incorporate V2X technologies into their vehicles while ensuring compatibility with existing communication protocols. At the same time, technology companies are leading the way in developing innovative V2X technology hardware and software solutions, such as onboard units, communication modules, and off-car edge compute capabilities.

Network operators play a crucial role in providing the necessary cellular connectivity for V2X technology communication. Telcos and IT service providers are responsible for deploying and maintaining roadside units or slightly more centralized telco or metro datacenter venues that deliver the edge compute power required to support V2X technology use cases.

Government agencies assume a regulatory role by establishing standards and policies that govern the implementation of V2X technology. Their aim is to ensure interoperability and safety across the industry. Standardization bodies like IEEE and ETSI contribute by developing industry-wide standards for V2X technology communication. Collaboration among all these ecosystem players is essential to drive widespread adoption and advancement of V2X technology, ultimately leading to safer and more efficient transportation systems.

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